Science, Meteorology: Local And Global Winds

Meteorology: Local and Global Winds

Instructions

Respond to the following questions in a single discussion board post. Please label your answers as they are labeled in the prompt (#1, #2, #3, #4, etc).

Part 1: Sea Breezes

1 (+1): Air moves from areas of (choose: high pressure or low pressure) to areas of (choose: high pressure or low pressure).

2 (+1) During the daytime, solar heating will cause the (choose: land or ocean) to become warmer and develop thermal low pressure.

3 (+1) During the night, cooling will cause the (choose: land or ocean) to be warmer and develop thermal low pressure.

4 (+1): In your own words, describe how sea breezes form in two or three sentences. Make sure to discuss the formation of the thermal low and how this causes the winds to move in one direction or another (Sea breezes = from water onto land, Land breeze = from land onto water).

5 (+1): Examine the following image that shows the temperature readings from the interior of an island and the air temperature from a buoy offshore.

Using your knowledge of sea breezes, state if the thermal low occurring over land or the water and if there will be a land breeze or sea breeze occurring on the island.

Examine the following image

6 (+1): Florida is known for its sea breezes and land breezes. Using the above hypothetical satellite image, first, identify if the image represents a sea breeze or a land breeze. Hint: the circles represent weather stations. The tails represent wind direction (which way the wind is coming from). The small barbs that stick off to the side show speed. More on those later in the course. For now, just look at the direction.

7 (+1): Now since you identified if the satellite image represents a landbreeze or a seabreeze, identify what time of time this image was recorded, during the day or overnight. Hint: think about the formation of these wind patterns.

Part 2: Monsoon

A monsoon is a seasonal weather pattern that occurs due to the difference in pressure between the ocean and land. It causes periods of extensive rainfall or extensive drought based on the direction of the winds.

8 (+1): Examine the image (Hint: look at the pressure readings) above which shows the surface pressure across Asia. The pressure is greater over (choose: land or ocean). Need a map to help provide context, check here

9 (+1): Identify if winds would be onshore (from the water onto land) or offshore (from land onto water) according to this surface chart and describe in 1-2 sentences providing why the winds would be moving in that direction (Hint: Think about the pressure gradient force)

10 (+1): When the air becomes colder, it becomes denser and sinks. When air is warmer is less dense and expands. Using your knowledge of temperature and pressure and monsoons, identify which month this surface chart was created: January, April, July, or October.

11 (+1): Now put it in your own words. Asia has a summer and winter monsoon which has a tremendous impact on the weather and climate. Describe in your own words in two or three sentences both how a summer monsoon forms and why it can result in heavy rainfall over land.

Part 3: Global Winds

Examine the image below which shows the 250mb chart (wind movement high in the atmosphere)

12 (+1): The jet stream, often found at the 250mb level of the atmosphere, plays a major role in the weather in the United States by showing the advance of cooler or warmer air in the upper levels of the atmosphere. Which state is the polar jet trough over causing the coldest surface temperatures: California, Maine, Minnesota, or Montana?

Across the Earth in each hemisphere, there are three major winds that occur in the upper atmosphere that provide direction to weather systems.

13 (+1): Between 00 and 30o degrees there are the trade winds that move primarily _(choose: east to west or west to east).

14 (+1): Between 30o and 60o degrees, there are the westerlies that move primarily _(choose: east to west or west to east).

15 (+1): Between 60o and 90o degrees there are the polar winds that move primarily _(choose: east to west or west to east).

16 (+1): Examine the following hurricane path map which shows a typical tropical storm movement pattern along the East Coast of the United States

Hurricanes tend to move west across the Atlantic but then tend to “hook” and turn north and northeast before heading east over the Atlantic Ocean as they pass Florida as Hurricane Dorian did. Using your knowledge of global winds (see #13-15 above) describe in 2-3 sentences why hurricanes tend to follow this “hook” or “c-shaped” pattern along the East Coast of the United States. (Hint: do not discuss the Bermuda High here but think about the three major global wind patterns and examine the lines of latitude)